Throughput, Goodput And Latency

To define Throughput, Goodput and Latency, we need to understand some terms first. Propagation Delay The propagation delay can be calculated with the following formula: Propagation delay = distance / speed of the signal where “distance” is the length of ... Read More »

TCP Connection Termination

Let’s suppose both client and server are in the Established state. Although the TCP connection termination can be initiated by either the client or the server, let’s assume here that the application process on the client side informs TCP that ... Read More »

Finite State Machines (FSM)

– network protocol states, events and actions can be captured in FSM – a state describes a unique configuration of the protocol – the FSM describes how a protocol behaves from both client and server points of view – FSM ... Read More »

Error Detection And Correction

The transmission media is not 100% reliable. It introduces modification of the signal such as distortion, attenuation noise and interference. This introduces errors in transmitted data, in the form of bit errors. The bigger the frame size and the higher ... Read More »

Introduction To ICMP

– is a Transport layer protocol. When encapsulated into IP, the protocol field of the IP header = 1 to mean “ICMP”. – header fields: Types Code Checksum Message-specific information – header size is 8 Bytes: the first 4 Bytes ... Read More »

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