Here are a couple of notes I gathered around the subject of Cisco Etherchannel:
EtherChannel is a technology that allows a set of ports to be bundled into one logical interface. When one member port fails, traffic that was flowing through it is redirected over the remaining operational member ports, without human intervention.
A physical port can be a member of only one EtherChannel.
We can configure an Etherchannel between a network device and a router, a switch, a server,…
An EtherChannel can be:
- a Fast EtherChannel: an EtherChannel formed from Fast Ethernet interfaces
- a Giga EtherChannel: an EtherChannel formed from Gigabit Ethernet interfaces
- a port Channel: a layer 3 EtherChannel
Spanning Tree Protocol sees the portchannel as a single port
channel-group x mode on : neither PAgP, nor LACP is used. To specify that we want LACP or PAgP, we must choose one of these modes: desirable, auto, active, passive.
The channel group number must be the same on both ends of the bundle.
I am going to discuss L3 EtherChannels on a Cisco ISR only (such as the famous Cisco 2811 router).
A layer 3 Etherchannel is also called port channel. For inter-VLAN trunking, it only supports IEEE 802.1Q.
We can use a layer 3 EtherChannel to connect a router to a switch or a stack of switches. When you connect the ISR router to a stack of switches, you can have two deployment options:
- concentrate all member ports on one switch, or
- build a cross-stack EtherChannel, where we take one port from each switch and connect it to the router
On an ISR, we can have up to two layer 3 EtherChannels. Each layer 3 EtherChannel can have up to four member ports. Also, the member ports must be of the same speed, duplex, type and trunk mode. What I mean by “same type” is that member ports can not a mixture of network module interfaces. Trying, for example, to bundle a NM-1GE port with a HWIC-1GE-SFP port in an EtherChannel is not supported. However, member ports can be on different slots on the router.
A Cisco ISR does not support layer 2 EtherChannels. But, if it is equipped with an EtherSwitch service module, this one supports both layer 2 and layer 3 EtherChannels.
When you add a configuration to an EtherChannel, the settings will propagate to the member ports. However, making a change in the configuration of the member ports does not propagate to the EtherChannel.
Beware that LACP and PAgP do not work on an ISR if you want to negotiate port aggregation. Simply configure the EtherChannel manually on both ends of the bundled link (even if the other device supports these protocols).
The layer 3 EtherChannel can be configured with an IP address. We can also create layer 3 EtherChannel subinterfaces and assign them IP addresses.
Configuring a Layer 3 EtherChannel
- first, remove L2 capability on bundle member interfaces, by issuing the command no switchport
- on the portchannel, remove L2 capability and give it an ip address.
- Do the same on the other end of the bundle.
- Now the portchannel is a router port and can ping portchannel of the other end !
Load Balancing in a layer 3 EtherChannel
Load balancing in a layer 3 EtherChannel on a ISR router is based on both the source and destination IP addresses. It can not be done based solely on either source IP address or destination IP address.
Also, VLAN ID has no impact on load balancing.
Bandwidth aggregation in an EtherChannel
Bundling a set of interfaces into an EtherChannel allows to have an aggregation of the interfaces bandwidth, in Catalyst switches. However, in ISR routers, there is no guarantee that this holds true. In fact, don’t make EtherChannels on routers if your goal is to increase the bandwidth between the router and the other device. Cisco does not guarantee that your EtherChannel will operate at an aggregate wire rate speed. Your only purpose of doing EtherChannel between an ISR router and another device is to have load balancing and to increase redundancy.
Configuring load balancing in the EtherChannel
If we change the default method, we must
- make the change,
- unbundle the ports,
- rebundle them
- do the same at the other end
- auto + desirable = portchannel created
- if something changes on one member port, PAgP applies same changes on the other member ports.
- “no-silent” submode: port channel requests that the other end sends PAgP packets
- show etherchannel summary : see portchannels and their member ports
- show interfaces
- show vlan brief
Understanding Layer 3 EtherChannel Support on Cisco Integrated Services Router, Cisco.com