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Networking Basics

Digital Modulation


In this post, we will talk about digital modulation, some concepts and some popular techniques. As part of the whole digital communication system, digital modulation occurs immediately before the physical transmission of the signal: Digital modulation techniques Digital modulation techniques ... Read More »

Analog Modulation


In this post, we will discuss the characteristics of a signal, then we will explain the difference between the time domain and the frequency domain. In the end, we introduce the concept of modulation. Usually we apply modulation techniques to ... Read More »

Multicast Routing Algorithms

In this article I’ll expose the most popular multicast routing algorithms. Flooding Flooding is the most basic multicast routing algorithm. The way it works is as follows: the router receives a multicast packet on interface Int1 if the packet is “seen” ... Read More »

BGP, The Border Gateway Protocol

BGP Introduction Historically, there was EGP. then came BGP. BGP is a popular Exterior Gateway Protocol. It falls under neither the distance vector, nor the link state family; it is a path vector protocol. BGP is a policy-based routing protocol; we ... Read More »

Autonomous Systems, IGP and EGP

 Interior Gateway Protocols IGP Interior Gateway Protocols are the protocols that run inside an autonomous system. IGPs are all (or most) of the protocols you learned in school (or later in your career): RIP, OSPF, EIGRP, IS-IS,… IGP can be ... Read More »

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