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IT Certifications

E1 PRI, T1 PRI and ISDN BRI

In this post, we will understand the nuances between the following concepts: TDM links and interfaces T1, T1 PRI, E1, E1 PRI, ISDN BRI E1 and T1 E1 and T1 are two TDM technologies; they leverage Time Division  Multiplexing to ... Read More »

OSPF Route Filtering

ospf-route-filtering-f

In this article, we are going to learn how to filter routes in OSPF. We will learn how to do that within an area, and between areas. Network topology We will use the following topology. Everything is done in GNS3. I ... Read More »

How OSPF Is Making The World A Better Place

OSPF-tutorial-2

In this tutorial we will discuss the building blocks of OSPF. OSPF tables Neighbor table link state database (LSDB) OSPF packet types There are 5 OSPF packet types: Hello LSU LSR: Link State Request DBD: DataBase Descriptor: checks LSDB synchronization LSAck ... Read More »

Why Spanning Tree Protocol is Used

This short article describes why the Spanning-Tree Protocol is used. It’s easy to connect a bunch of computers to a switch, and connect the switch to its gateway, and you get a full simple network. But then you add another ... Read More »

Spanning Tree Protocol

Please read here for a brief introduction on Spanning Tree Protocol  STP BID and Root Bridge Each BPDU contains the Bridge ID (or BID for short). The Bridge ID is composed of: the bridge priority the bridge MAC address The ... Read More »

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