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Author Archives: Keyboard Banger

TCP Connection Termination

Let’s suppose both client and server are in the Established state. Although the TCP connection termination can be initiated by either the client or the server, let’s assume here that the application process on the client side informs TCP that ... Read More »

Finite State Machines (FSM)

– network protocol states, events and actions can be captured in FSM – a state describes a unique configuration of the protocol – the FSM describes how a protocol behaves from both client and server points of view – FSM ... Read More »

Error Detection And Correction

The transmission media is not 100% reliable. It introduces modification of the signal such as distortion, attenuation noise and interference. This introduces errors in transmitted data, in the form of bit errors. The bigger the frame size and the higher ... Read More »

Introduction To ICMP

– is a Transport layer protocol. When encapsulated into IP, the protocol field of the IP header = 1 to mean “ICMP”. – header fields: Types Code Checksum Message-specific information – header size is 8 Bytes: the first 4 Bytes ... Read More »

Introduction to UDP

The UDP datagram consists of a header and an optional data field. The format of the datagram is as follows: Let’s concentrate on the UDP header: The UDP header overhead is usually 8 Bytes. The way to represent that visually ... Read More »

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